Honey bees are extra-ordinary creatures. There are so many interesting things to know about them that set them apart from every other creature in the world you could write every day in a lifetime and still not cover it all.
One of the fascinating things about bees is their vision. The anatomy and physiology of what they eyes are and how they work to help bees do what the do is phenomenal!
First of all, bees have two sets of eyes. There are the “simple eyes” technically called “ocelli” and there are the “complex” eyes which are the “Compound” eyes. Except for bee larvae, they don’t have any eyes at that stage.
Bees live in a world of almost complete and total darkness when they are inside a hive. Just like you and I, they need to find their way around in the dark. The bigger eyes, the compound eyes, aren’t the best for that. The ocelli are their answer to how to “see” in the dark.
There are three (3) small spots on the top of a honey bee’s head, between their antennae in a triangular layout. Those are the ocelli. Ocelli are only able to observe changes in light intensity, but that ability helps them do so much.
Honey bees have two (2) large compound eyes. These are the eyes we can see on the bees head on either side. The compound eyes have multiple tiny facets with lenses (ommatidia) covering each eye. Each of the three castes of bees has a different number of ommatidia. For example, Queens have about 4,000, Workers have about 5,000 and Drones have around 8,000 of them.
The compound eyes do more than just “see things” for the bees. Compound eyes are capable of forming images (seeing things), seeing in color (except red) including the ultra-violet spectrum, detecting movement, identify shapes and patterns, initiate head turning response, and seeing polarized light.
Not only that, but there are little hairs growing from the surface of the compound eyes and the bees use those hairs to detect air motion. That is how we figure bees to be such interesting pilots because it allows them to gauge airflow speed and direction.
Whew! Those are some kind of eyes.
This is what some researchers tell us bee see things as…
The biology of honey bees is a thing of technological wonder and artistic wonder. The more we learn about these incredible little critters, the more we realize we have so much more to learn.