As promised, here at the Bee Smart beekeeping project, we want to always work to bring you new, original content that you aren’t going to find anywhere else and is going to help you bee Smart about bees and beekeeping and have fun while you’re doing it.
So, here come the Bee Smart Crosswords. Every week, on Wednesdays, a new crossword puzzle based on something having to do with bees or beekeeping will be posted here on the website.
The first Crossword hits next Wednesday. Bee ready to to buzz through this game like a pro.
Pretty much all bees have stingers on them or “stings” in general. Also, pretty much all bees sting to defend themselves and their nests. This is pretty well established.
However, what most people don’t realize is that not all bees lose the sting once they have used it to sting something else. As a matter of fact, pretty much only Honey bees, Apis mellifera, lose their sting due to having it literally ripped from their body along with the venom sac after having stung something else.
Through different studies, we’re pretty much convinced that honey bees actually know they are going to die when they sting. They know it and they do it anyway. In Japanese, “Kamikaze” means, “Divine Winds” referring usually to hurricanes an such. I’ve heard it they looked on Kamikaze airplane fighter pilots as being a special attack wreaking terrible destruction. This, I think, is a pretty interesting description of what damage can be done to an opponent when you are willing to go to such dramatic feats to not just defeat the enemy but utterly eliminate them. Think of the devastation a hurricane can do.
A honey bee, knowing it gives it’s life in it’s sting to defend nest and self is essentially going all out, literally giving it’s everything to overcome the perceived enemy at any cost. I think the concept of a swarm of bees taking to the air in order to not just defend the colony from attack but to make that enemy entirely go away is true to the concept of Kamikaze. Just about everything that has taken to raiding a honey bee hive, from wild bears to human beekeepers and everything in between, has learned to regret that decision as it runs as far away as fast as it can.
Not all bees lose their stings, oh no, pretty much all the rest can keep going back to give a gift that keeps on giving until the threat removes itself. Bumblebees are known as exceedingly docile and calm out in the flowers. There’s a time though when those bumblebees can attack ferociously if you are interfering with their nest. Not only will they come out to sting in defense, they retain the sting and just coming in again and again and again, etc…
Honey bees don’t always lose their sting though. It depends on what they are stinging. If they sting another honey bee for example or something of similar size and makeup, they will mostly keep the sing instead of having it pulled out and dying. In larger, thicker skinned creatures though, the tiny barbs that are on the sting will catch and not only stick in to be yanked out of the bee, they continue the attack after the bee has detached.
Oh yes, the honey bee stinger is actually a more complicated thing than a simple barbed needle. In fact, it is two needles working together in a piston-like motion so that once inserted into the body of a victim, they continue to dig themselves in even deeper giving more direct access to the venom in the connected venom sac that came off with the sting. A good reason to never pinch the sting to remove it is because by doing so, often more venom is injected by squeezing the ven0m sac along with the sting. Scrape that sting out with a knife, plastic card, even a fingernail instead.
That isn’t the end to the mischief the honey bee has wrought in stinging though. Oh no! It’s not done done with us yet. Not only does it’s stinger get physically, forcibly removed from it’s body, leaving it in our body. Not only does the sting continue to dig deeper into the skin to deliver its venom more effectively. While she has indeed gone off to die, the little worker bee who has wounded us so, she has also left a chemical marker scent upon us. A pheromone that acts as a beacon to other honey bee workers flying to the defense. We are now not only wounded, we are now tagged so that the other bees have a persistent pheromonal version of GPS straight to us. That’s right, running will avail us little safety, we are marked and they will come to finish the job. Sounds ominous doesn’t it? It’s a good thing they aren’t overly persistent.
Most of the time, if we can get anywhere from 20 to 100 yards away (depending on the breed of bee) they will consider having done their job sufficiently and removed the immediate threat and call the forces back home. Whew! This is actually true of pretty much all stinging bees. They really don’t intend to utterly eliminate us, just remove the immediate threat. Once the perpetrator clears out of the immediate area, most bees are fine with calling a cease fire and returning to battle stations.
In fact, there are times, again depending on the breed of honey bee, where instead of stinging immediately, they give us a warning instead. A simple little bump, a head butt if you will. Simply just to let us know, ” Hey pal, if you know what’s good for you, you’ll high-tail it out of here cuz playtime’s over. Don’t make me have to tell you again.” yes, I am anthropomorphizing but it’s more fun that way.
So now you know a little more about the stinging activity of bees. It’s a good thing to know. Just remember, bees don’t “attack” they aren’t going out looking for a fight. That would be the wasps and hornets. No, bees just want to do their thing and be left alone.
Think of it as bees are all about, “Don’t start none, won’t bee none.”
I have the unfortunate position to inform our podcast listeners that the episode scheduled to release this past Saturday is unable to be made available.
So, the episode being recorded on Tuesday, September 19 will be released the same day in the afternoon/evening.
We will be doing a live recording this Friday from the Mangelsen’s store location as we set up the Bee Smart Info Booth and talk to visitors. The original goal was to air this live on Friday, but due to certain technical limitations, that won’t be possible.
Instead, that recording will be aired this coming Saturday as a regular, but special, episode.
Ah, our fuzzy friend the Bumble bee. It is actually part of the Order of bees called Hymenoptera and in the Family known as Apis or “Apidae”. Yes, that makes it related to the honey bee which is where most people recognize the word “Apis” from. It is specifically in the Genus “Bombus” and from there we can tell them apart by a sub-genus, species, then sub-species. For most common discussion, we start with and use the genus, etc…
For example, the bumble bee that was recently added to the U.S. Endangered species list is “Bombus affinis”. Most people know it as the “Rusty Patch” bumble bee.
Actually, there are 8 sub-genus and 46 different species of bumble bees in North America alone.
Bumble bees are some of the fuzziest bees of them all. That makes them incredibly effective pollinators. All that fuzz helps them bee one of the best in another way as well. They are the first to emerge in the spring and the last to settle down in the Autumn due to their special adaptation to dealing with cooler temperatures than other bees might tolerate.
Just here in the Omaha, Nebraska area where the Bee Smart beekeeping project is based, we can expect to see at least 6 to 10 different bumble bee species the Northern states and especially the Western states have an even greater diversity which can see 11 species or so on the low side up to as many as 24 different species in an area on the higher end. What’s more is that due to the fact that not all of the continental U.S. have been thoroughly surveyed, there could very likely be even more than we realize.
Bumble bees are semi-social bees that don’t build huge nests like honey bees but small nests either at ground level or below ground most of the time. In most cases, Queen bumble bees lay eggs that are intended to be reproductive and able to mate and start their own new nests the following Spring.
Once a new queen has emerged and mated in the Spring, she typically flies off to a new location, abandoning the nest site where she was born. Once she finds a new site to her satisfaction, she begins building a new nest and, collecting food up and then laying several eggs. When those bees emerge, they generally aren’t mated but work to help build the nest and allow the queen to focus on laying more eggs, building the colony while the others handle the foraging and defenses.
Bumble bees are some of the largest bees around and to match that size, they have some of the biggest stingers for defending the nest. Despite their weaponry and in some cases aggressive tendencies to defend the immediate nest site, bumble bees are also well known to be some of the most docile and least aggressive of all the bees out and about when they are foraging. You are least likely to be stung by a bumble bee away from their nest while they are bobbing around your flower garden.
Bumble bees are affected by pesticides and have a number of predators and parasitic pests that spread disease among them like honey bees and other types of bees have to deal with. It is ALWAYS highly recommended to leave a bumble bee nest alone if you find one somewhere as they typically won’t cause harm unless their nest entrance is located somewhere human and animal traffic will be very near and cause disturbance.
Did you know that you can obtain honey in at least five different forms?
This is the typical liquid honey you get in a jar.
This is large pieces of honey comb with honey inside of it stuck inside a jar of liquid honey.
This is full combs of honey that have been cut into a square.
This is honey that has been whipped and allowed to crystallize so fine that it seems smooth as butter and is spreadable.
This is honey comb filled with honey that was put into special sections and filled in with wax comb and honey and removed as a whole unit.
You can take a container of crystallized honey (no, it’s not “gone bad”) and make it liquid again one of the following ways…
Place the container into a hot, dry area and it will re-liquify in a while
Place the container in a hot water bath and it will re-liquify relatively quickly
Very small amounts can be placed into a microwave oven on low heat and re-liquified rapidly.
What does it mean when you see “Raw Honey” on a label?
Raw honey in this case refers to liquid honey that has not been filtered or has had very little straining and/or it has not been heated above 95-100 degrees Fahrenheit.
What is in most commercially packed honeys such as we find on store shelves?
Most commercially packed honey is honey that has been blended from two or more sources in order to deliver a consistent flavor and color.
Can I replace sugar with honey in my recipes?
As a matter of fact, yes, you can swap honey for sugar in most recipes. As a matter of fact, honey is noted in baking as helping to maintain moisture and “keep” better. It has been further noted that in some cases it helps to draw out more subtle flavors in a recipe.
There are times when cooking that due to honey being acidic, some recipes require that honey be neutralized. If that is the case for your recipe you can mix in about 1/12 of a teaspoon of baking soda per cup of honey added. that’ll fix it.
Generally speaking, you can follow the list below for conversion. Keep in mind, honey is sweeter than cane sugar, less is more.
1/4 cup sugar = 3 tbsp honey
1/3 cup sugar = 3 tbsp honey
1/2 cup sugar = 1/3 cup honey
1 cup sugar = 3/4 cup honey
2 cups sugar = 1.5 cups honey
How should I store honey?
Honey should generally be stored in a cool (just under about 50°F), dry area. If honey is heated too much, too often or is stored for too long it can darken in color
What is all this about moisture content in honey?
Moisture content is very important to honey because if too much moisture is present, the honey can start to ferment, that’s not a good thing unless you meat to make mead.
For example, U.S. Grade A Honey is not supposed to be above 18.6% moisture content or it isn’t Grade A anymore. As a matter of fact, if it isn’t at least or lower than 18.6%, it can’t even qualify for most honey judging competitions.Interestingly enough, if any honey is at or below 17.1% moisture content, it pretty much just won’t ferment.
So what kinds of honey do we usually find in our honey hunt? The has a list of definitions available used by a great many who work with honey professionally. Look this list over and see if you know which honey is which. Let’s do this Jeopardy style. I’ll give you the answer fit then I’ll post the question.
This is honey that has been filtered to remove various solids (like wax particles) and pollen grains.
What is…Filtered honey.
This is honey is it naturally is inside of a sealed comb or that is extracted but not filtered or heated.
What is… Raw honey.
Honey that has been heated and to meet certain temperature and time conditions mostly to destroy yeast that may be present but also to minimize crystallization for long shelf life.
What is…Pasteurized honey
These are any number of very thick honey products we can eat sometimes blended with various fruits, flavorings, nuts,spices but not other sweeteners.
What are…Honey spreads.
This is honey that has been very finely crystallized on purpose to make a spreadable and delicious smooth consistency.
What is…Creamed honey
Honey that is comprised of two or more different sources regardless of floral source, flavor, density or color.
What is…Blended honey.
What about honey for diabetics, Is it OK to use instead of sugar?
There’s an interesting thing about honey and diabetics. On the one hand, there is glucose in honey. Of course, glucose is a problem for diabetics and should be avoided in general.
Having said that, Honey has invertase which helps invert the sugars in nectar. Combine the inversion with dehydration and now you have honey. Because of that inversion though it has been noted that honey is more readily absorbed into the bloodstream.
What that ultimately means for diabetics is that if you are really watching your blood sugar levels, are getting plenty of active exercise, and are feeling a bit risky, then a little it of honey is lot having a bit more table sugar. Less goes further in this case. Seeing as honey is actually said to be sweeter than table sugars, you really don’t need to use that much at all.
Obviously I’m not a doctor and I’m not about to give you medical advice. But now you have some information to start you off on a sweet investigation hopefully leading you to a much better informed decision you can make for yourself.
That’s it for today folks. Keep coming back to visit us at the Bee Smart beekeeping project and we’ll bee sure to share some more sweet info your way.