Pragmatic Apiculture-Thriving Colonies Are Healthy Colonies – BBE-Tech

Over on my professional services website, I post more specifically on more esoteric topics specific to professional apiculture theory, concept, etc..

I like to post there going into more on the what’s and why’s of apicultural things over there.  Here at Bee Smart, the goal is to provide more applied information that can be used across the beekeeping spectrum.

Mostly what I cover over there is more classroom based content rather than “in-the-field” as this website is focused on.  In response to a question from a client of mine wanting to know what real purpose packages serve in apiculture, I wrote the following post.

Thriving colonies are healthy colonies and that’s the primary goal.

Source: Pragmatic Apiculture-Thriving Colonies Are Healthy Colonies – BBE-Tech

Packages, they’re all about that queen

Packages aren’t primarily about the bees in the package

Buying bee packages has been done for so long now that most people in beekeeping think it’s always been that way.  In the history of beekeeping, it’s actually still a relatively new thing.  Ultimately though, all of those bees from different colonies aren’t there to build a new, cohesive colony among themselves necessarily.

They are there to help build a strong colony.  They are there to provide a high population to gather resources and build a nest that is conducive to establishing a genetically cohesive colony.

The Queen is bringing her own colony with her

Queens are often shipped with bee packages, but not always.  It’s not necessary to ship a queen with a package because any queen that is sent along is almost guaranteed to not be the same genetic line as the bees in the package.

The queen, whether purchased with the packaged or obtained some other way by you, is going to establish a new colony of her own genetics using the bees in the package as the startup team.  The mated Queen you choose will get busy laying eggs to establish her colony while the package bees set up shop, so to speak.

Selected traits make your Queen more valuable than a package

Apiarists who are focused on establishing a line of selected traits that will be highly successful in their area will likely be raising their own queens or purchasing from a breeder they have investigated and trust for the traits they desire.  Those selected queens will be the real beginning of the colony that “owns” the hive you place them in.

After the larvae emerge and begin taking over duties, they will raise any new queens from the eggs laid by that Queen.  Eventually, every bee in this hive will be of the same genetic line as the selected queen.

Packages are about a strong start in a small box

What the initial package bees are is the startup crew.  They essentially exist solely for the purpose of providing a large enough workforce to forage, build the nest and care for the initial eggs and larvae of the selected Queen.  After a certain point, that hodge-podge crew will die out entirely leaving only the offspring of the selected Queen.

The package bees play a vital role in establishing the new colony.  Keep in mind though that they are not themselves ultimately the end result colony.   This places even more importance on the qualities of the Queen you obtain that into the hive with the package bees.

The package bees pave the way and never get to see the the end result

After the new package is installed into a hive, they will get to business right away.  It’s usually a good idea to feed a newly installed package heavily with 1:1 sugar syrup as soon as possible to help them get started on nest building and getting energy to go out foraging.  Depending on the quantity and quality of nectar available at the time of hiving a package, it’s est to continue to make sugar syrup available until they stop taking it.  They know what they want and when there’s enough of it to stop bothering with the “fast food” you provide.

If you have some relatively clean and drawn out combs, using a few of those in the initial hive box at installation of the package will also help the bees get a more successful start and make them more efficient.  Also know that you shouldn’t add too much space to the hive stack right away until they expand to the point of needing more boxes added. keeping the space as manageable as possible also increases the bees efficiency in building and maintaining the new nest.

Apiculture isn’t “just” beekeeping but a trade with adventure

What’s in a word?

Apiculture and beekeeping.  Two words that are synonymous of each other and yet not exactly the same.  Many words often refer to something similar  yet every word also retains it’s own special definition.  Each word isn’t exactly the same as other synonymous words.

Words have meaning.  Apiculture refers to beekeeping, yet it means something more distinct.  Yes, apiculture and beekeeping both refer to the practice of maintaining honey bee hives.  Yet, while one term, “beekeeping”, is obviously more generic, “apiculture” suggests something more refined.

Apiculture as a trade

I know that I am not the only one who looks upon and goes about my efforts with bees as a hobby or even in a “commercial” approach.  Apiculture as a trade exists in a place somewhere in between the two.

One one hand, it is a specialized, professional endeavor.  A process through which a person has undergone formal and informal education.  Apprenticeship and working with and alongside a person who has made a living with bees and all they provide.

It is, in part, setting goals and objectives for productivity and profitability.  We establish and follow objective measures and a course of action to be planned and followed.

As a trade there are technical issues and aspects we must identify and practice.  We develop a mastery of skills and knowledge and never cease to build upon it.

Apiculture is also a passion

This path also requires a philosophical approach, if not an artistic one.   Apiarists are guided by a sense of design and purpose.  There is purpose from the initial stages of preparing the grounds and putting together hives to selecting the type of bees and the management methods to achieve the goals of the apiary.

As an Apiarist (or Apiculturist) there is a connection we feel not just to the bees but to the apiary and to the work as a whole.  It is in it’s own way a Holistic enterprise.  We are always trying to achieve this balance.  We want to work toward a symmetry of sorts between the immediate environment, the bees and our purpose.

Apiculture is equal parts practicality and ideology

If we bring all the parts together, we get a grand purpose.   It’s both a career and a passion.  For so many, it becomes a part of their essential identity.  It’s a part of who and what we are.  The term, “Labor of love” is heard from apiarists fairly often.

This in no way slights either hobbyists or commercial operators.  The interactions they pursue in those avenues are admirable in their own ways as well.  Still, there is indeed a difference.  There is a difference economically and philosophically.

The Bee Smart beekeeping project

Bee Smart beekeeping project is to provide information and insight for anyone and everyone who wants to know more about bees and beekeeping.  You could say it is an enterprise of apiculture passion.  I want to share with people not just knowledge and information about bees.  It’s also about sharing the experience, the enthusiasm, and the opportunity that bees and beekeeping presents.

Everything posted here is an effort to share all of those things and have fun and keep people interested while doing so.  From the puzzles and article posts to the podcasts and occasional videos.  It’s all about sharing the experience of apiculture.

Let me share with you the world of bees and beekeeping that I and other apiarists I am lucky enough to call my friends can show you.  See you in the forums.

Is Domestic Honey Going The Way of Craft Brewing

Domestic or local honey is entering an new era of “craft” production and presentation. The degree of effort and ingenuity that many beekeepers are putting into their honey products is nothing short of amazing.

Most honey sold in the U.S. now is imported.  The majority of the honey you find on store shelves and baked into the foods that use honey comes from South America and Asia.  Yes, a lot of that “banned” Chinese honey still finds it’s way into the country via “honey launderers” in Europe and U.S. honey packers that really don’t care what is in the honey they import, as long as it’s cheap.  They are going to blend it all anyway.

Where does that leave domestic honey?   Some of it, mostly produced by commercial pollinator bee businesses, does find it’s way into the big honey packers.  It too gets blended into the job lots of imported honeys to add to the flavor and allows the packers to say that the honey they offer is also domestic.

What of the rest?  More and more, we’re beginning to see a rise of artisan honey.  Local producers working to time their harvests to get small but unique bouquets of nectar based honey that become sought out and bought by locals and new “Honey Connoisseurs” that live to experiment with honey the way other people collect and sample fine wines, scotch and spices.

C. Marina Marchese and Kim Flottum, both established beekeepers and authors, co-wrote a book titled “Honey Connoisseur” that has swept the imagination and taste-buds of beekeepers and non-beekeepers alike by introducing readers not only to the nectar sources that produce exquisite honeys but delightful ways those honey can be identified, matched with other foods and drinks and used in cooking as more than just a sweetener.

Other honey craftsmen are getting into the infused honey market and are delicately blending other, unique, flavors into their locally collected honey.  I know a beekeeper in New York State with a burgeoning side business that infuses some of the hottest peppers into his honey and is picking up like gangbusters.  It’s an awesome thing to experience according to those who rave and beg for more even when his supply is sold out for the year.

The mead makers are still out there making their finest honey wine and beer.  This is now even further accentuated with the explosion of craft brewing.  The possibilities now for honey based brews is staggering.  Alcoholic honey beverages aren’t alone.  There’s a slowly building community of honey based soda and non-alcoholic drink makers making an entry into the craft honey beverage realm as well.  Here in my own back yard  down in Bellevue, NE we have a fellow who makes a spectacular mead AND a honey root beer that is simply awesome.  His business has built quite a reputation for creative honey beverages.

As domestic apiculture moves further into the twenty-first century, we will see, I believe, an explosion of “craft” honey offerings.  Honey producing beekeepers, hobbyists and professional apiarists alike, have their work cut out for them to find ever creative and unique ways to expose new customers to not just local honey, but custom, crafted honey products and uses.

Quite a delicious problem to take on.

New Beeginnings for the Bee Joyful Apiary

We literally break ground this coming weekend to start setting hive stands at the new teaching apiary at Scatter Joy Acres up in Florence.

We are starting off with 2 new interns, 1 full apprentice and 2 volunteer assistants.

We are still encouraging people to donate materials and resources directly to Scatter Joy Acres and if you would like to support the Bee Smart beekeeping project effort to manage the apiary, train new Apiarists, and provide positive interaction opportunities for visitors, please consider supporting us over at my Patreon page for the Bee Smart beekeeping project. Our Patreon supporters will have exclusive access to video updates on the progress of the apiary throughout the year.

Part of the work I do is live bee removals around the Omaha metro area.  As I rescue these bees before they might be killed, I will start them in a process to hopefully end up at the Bee Joyful Teaching Apiary.  Again these live removal efforts are greatly helped by our Patreon supporters whose patronage helps to reduce costs of work for low income people.  Costs can get very high trying to open up and repair an opening where a bee nest is removed.

My goal is to help people bee better beekeepers and keep bee alive and thriving.  My apprentices want to to be that kind of beekeeper as well.  With projects like this that allow us to offer fun, informative and creative content to share with the world, everyone comes out a winner.  Your patronage at the Patreon page help create winners.

Bringing Back Hive Talkin, in a way

Back at the beeginning, I had an idea for a different podcast which was unfortunately sidelined to make way for the Bee Smart podcast featuring the Beehooligans. However, this was an awesome chat and I think you’ll really like this fella.

“Hive Talkin” was an early podcast effort made hoping to meet new beekeepers out there and find out what gets them all abuzz .

It didn’t get far as the Bee Smart Podcast featuring the Beehooligans began to take off.  However, much of what I had wanted to do with Hive Talkin” is now done within the Bee Smart podcast, which is great.

I thought though that I’d let you listen to this episode of Hive Talkin featuring Author, Teacher, beekeeper, and spicey honey enthusiast, Patrick Frievald.

Notorious Beekeepers: Warwick Kerr

You may not know Warwick Kerr by name, but he is the much maligned researcher whose work unfortunately brought us the media scare-fest, the “Killer” Honey bee.

First of all, Warwick Kerr is a Brazilian Entomologist and Geneticist whose work in studying honey bee genetics, particularly genetic sex selection goes back to the early 1950’s.

In fact, in the mid 1950’s he was contracted to try to help Brazilian farmer’s improve pollination seeing as western honey bees weren’t showing the same degree of successful adaptation to the tropical/sub-tropical environment in South America.  What did they opt to do?   Why they brought in a known successful sub-tropical adapted honey bee from Africa to inter-breed with the historically well managed western European honey bees.

Things were actually going well in the research until a day in 1957 when some of the African honey bee Queens being worked with escaped the confinement area and began to occupy and breed with European bees out in the un-managed open areas of Brazil.

African bees, due to their nature and adaptation to a tropical environment, breed rapidly and aggressively to take over other established colonies in a region.  This led to a new mix breed of honey bee we now know as the Africanized Honey bee.

I refer to Dr. Kerr as “notorious” because he has been treated rather poorly in the media and through history being in charge of the experiment gone awry.  The man has since continued to contribute a great amount of research and study to the study of bees and is somewhat a victim of the politicization of science.  He has published well over 600 various research articles on various related topics over the years since then.

Warwick Kerr, due to his bee genetics research and his historic blunder, if you will, of the introduction of the Africanized Honey Bee, is undoubtedly one of the most significant beekeepers of the 20th century.

Notable Apiarist, Roger Morse

When  first got serious about apiculture, Roger Morse became one of my first beekeeping “Notables”.  Mr Morse’s work has been truly influential in modern beekeeping.

Image courtesy of Wikipedia.

He was one of the first researchers to delve in-depth into the Varroa mites. Not only that, he had a good look at Small Hive Beetles as well.  Closely connected to Cornell University,  he has authored numerous research articles on any number of topics relating to beekeeping and was a contributor to that time of apicultural information, “ABC’s and XYZ’s of Beekeeping”, and the monthly beekeeping magazine, “Bee Culture”, among others.

He was influential to several of those we currently count on for new and important research.  People like Tom Seeley, author of “Honeybee Democracy”  for example.

The writing and presentation style of Roger Morse was persuasive to say the least.  At least to me.  I find his writing in particular to be familiar, friendly even.

One of his books in particular number among my favorites, “The New Complete Guide to Beekeeping”.

Cornell University press euligized Roger Morse and provided us with a far too brief but well done last look at his work.

What’s in a Genus name?

Yes, it’s still honey bee taxonomy week here at the Bee Smart beekeeping project.  Just a cool FYI  for those following along.

Did you know that in the taxonomy of the honey bee the name “Apis” is not the complete name?  That’s right, there’s more to it.

Technically speaking, though we only ever really refer to honey bees as Apis mellifera (Genus Apis, Species mellifera), the full Genus is “Apis Linnaeus”.  Carl Linnaeus is the distinguished gentleman in the picture accompanying this post.

There’s a very cool PDF on updated taxonomy of the honey bee called “The Taxonomy of Recent and Fossil Honey Bees” by  Michael S. Engel, on our Download page that you can download and read, courtesy of KU ScholarWorks

Currently used scientific name was given to honey bee by Linnaeus (also known as: Carl von Linné) in 1758

(Tofilski A. (2012) Honey bee. Available from http://www.honeybee.drawwing.org.)

The Return of the Bee Smart Podcast featuring the Beehooligans, Episode 33

Yes my friends, it’s here.  This first step back is a humble little episode, hosted by yours truly.  There are plans to make this more…companionable as it picks up steam again.

You will be able to listen to the full episode here on the embedded player in this post and you can listen through the whole lineup of Bee Smart podcasts on the Podcast Page of this website.  (eventually they’ll all bee there, I am still adding them in one at a time).

This episode discusses the return of the podcast and the timely topic of Honey Bee Taxonomy.