Pests and Pest Mgmt
According to Tony "Big Bear" Sandoval, a former professional pest control operator/technician and professional apiarist, IPM is an acronym for "Integrated Pest Management". IPM started as an effort by the Cooperative Extension Service in the 1970's to help farmers address field pests causing excessive damage to crops but also having the adverse impact of out-of-control pesticide use. IPM seeks to minimize or eliminate unnecessary use of toxic pesticides while at the same time implementing a system of steps that include incorporating multiple treatment or control methods simultaneously. The main reasons to want to minimize the unnecessary ise of toxic pesticides is to prevent pest resistance to overexposure to a single group of products ultimately culminating in the control being ineffective afterwards. Another reason is adverse effects of exposure to the toxins in the pesticides that affect the environment. The implementation of an IPM plan in a beekeepers overall beekeeping is almost universally recommended by experts, researchers and educators in the field.
LD50 refers to what equals a lethal dosage or the amount of micro-organisms that are necessary to kill off 50% of the target or studied population.
European foulbrood, a disease specifically targeting honey bee brood, is considered a stress related disease and is essentially a bacterial source. The specific bacterium, Melissococcus pluton, does not form spores. it (the bacterium) lives overwinter alongside cell walls, in feces and in wax debris at the hive bottom.